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. the average american, who had grade school education in 1940, now had completed high school. americans were making more money and working fewer hours. they enjoyed the good life. for most people, the benefits of economic growth were there for the taking. but by the end of the 1960s, hidden costs appeared. automobiles dumped 230,000 tons of carbon monoxide a day into the air. los angeles air was hazardous most of the year. oil spills in the santa barbara channel fouled miles of beaches. pesticide spraying was threatening many species of birds. pesticide spills killed some 15 million fish in arkansas. three million acres of hillsides lay stripped bare for their coal. and in cleveland, the local industrial sewer, the cuyahoga river, caught fire. environmentalists had found a loophole in the gnp. the gnp measures goods and services traded, for example, scrubbers used to clean sulfur emissions. clean air isn't bought or sold, so it's not counted. if sulfur is not cleaned up, the resulting pollution is not subtracted. gnp is not reduced. gnp fails to take into account environmental values. if we
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